M88 : Barcelona legends Xavi and Andres Iniesta back ‘fantastic’ Manchester United manager Louis van Gaal

m88 For me he is fantastic.

‘He was ahead of his time back then; he worked to perfect the m88 training sessions and improve the team technically and tactically – 20 years ago he was a very complete coach.

‘In time he will do a very good job at Manchester United. He’s mediocre.

‘He destroyed Barca and is destroying Man United.

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Updated:

16:56 GMT, 9 September 2015

Published:

11:57 GMT, 9 September 2015

Manchester United manager Louis van Gaal has received the backing of two Barcelona legends who both believe he will be a success at Old Trafford despite an unconvincing first year in charge.

Xavi and Andres Iniesta both played under Van Gaal at the M88 Nou Camp and lavished praise on their former boss.

The Spain internationals labelled United’s manager ‘fantastic’, ‘ahead of his time’, and a ‘special’ manager, after he gave both men their Barca debuts.

Barcelona legends Xavi (right) and Andres Iniesta (centre) have both come out in support of Louis van Gaal

The Barca pair were both given their first chance at the club by the Dutch manager when he was in charge

The Manchester United boss finished fourth last season at the m88 club, and his methods have been criticised

‘They criticise him on a human level because he is very direct or because he seems arrogant,’ Xavi told Diario Sport in Doha, where he now plays for Al Sadd.

‘But you have to know him as a coach on a day-to-day basis. ‘I really wanted to play the m88 game. He will do a great job.’

Van Gaal handed Xavi his debut back in 1998 and his positive comments were echoed by Iniesta, who the Dutch coach put in the first team when he was still just 17.

Xavi comes on for his Barcelona debut in 1998, an opportunity handed to him by Van Gaal

Iniesta said: ‘He has been a fundamental person in my career and a key coach in my development.

‘He gambled on me as a m88 player when there were some really big name players in front of me and that’s why he will always be special to me.’

The Dutch coach has been on the wrong side of Spain internationals Victor Valdes, David de Gea and Ander Herrera recently.

He made Victor Valdes train with the United youngsters earlier this summer; he has consistently over-looked Herrera despite the former Athletic midfielder having the backing of most United fans; and he has had De Gea watching the start of the m88 season from the stands.

The Dutch manager has over-looked Ander Herrera (left) at times, to the annoyance of many United fans

David de Gea (centre) has spent this season watching from the stands due to his desire to join Real Madrid

He also incurred the wrath of former Barcelona player Hristo Stoichkov recently when it seemed Manchester United might sign Pedro.

Stoichkov said: ‘I would never play for Van Gaal. Now I have to keep working hard and let’s see if I have the same luck with my m88 club.’

Pete Jenson for MailOnline. He will make them very strong in the M88 Premier League and in the Champions League. With what he has done to [Victor] Valdes he has shown he is a bad person.

‘Hopefully Pedro will listens and does not go there. Van Gaal will ruin him as a footballer.’

Former Barcelona forward Hristo Stoichkov, pictured in 1997, has blasted Van Gaal (right)

Stoichkov (left) played under Van Gaal during his second spell at Barcelona in the 1990s

De Gea was due to face his boss on Wednesday before the afternoon m88 training session as the pair look to repair the damage done by the keeper’s failed attempt to move to Real Madrid.

De Gea hinted that he is still not sure if he will be welcomed back into the first m88 team for Saturday’s meeting with Liverpool when he said after his return to competitive action in Spain’s 1-0 win over Macedonia.

‘I felt good out there,’ he said with m88u.com

M88 Fans of Liverpool FC Search for a Store to Purchase a Variety of Merchandise

m88 These hats come in different styles, but most popular are the beanies. One will want to look for a m88 store that offers a selection of clothes for adults, youth, children, and infants. Even others may desire cell phone accessories. The value isnt just in monetary amounts, but includes the emotional connection to an item once used by a highly regarded Liverpool player.

Other popular choices are Liverpool LC hoodies and sweatshirts. Items that were once personal possessions of M88 Liverpool members are highly sought after and become very valuable to fans. Every order ships the same day it is placed.

Liverpool Football Club is a m88 sport team widely followed by both Europeans, residents of the United Kingdom, Canada, and The United States. These hats are decorated with some type of Liverpool or Anfield connection. Finding a store that offers a wide selection of Liverpool merchandise will allow fans to find exactly what they are looking for.

Author’s Bio:

Alisha Weiss is the Managing Partner of The Anfield Shop. After years of buying and collecting top Liverpool merchandise, they are absolutely elated to begin offering official LFC products to our fellow fans through their shop. It is a small shop located near Seattle, Washington. Liverpools team is one of the favorite teams worldwide. A m88 store may sell a variety of Liverpool LC sweatshirts and hoodies which may include logos from Anfield or L-4 bird prints. Many fans are searching for merchandise that has been used by Liverpools team members or perhaps items signed by them. Other fans may be in search of books or DVDs about Liverpool FC. For fans looking for a store to purchase Liverpool merchandise it is best to locate a store that sells different types of m88 items. Although many stores have a good selection for customers to choose from, it may be possible to either custom order a sweatshirt or have the store search for a particular item.

Team mementos are not the only Liverpool merchandise offered by a store. These may include m88 team shirts, goalie gloves, programs, pictures, and many other items. Examples include numbers and names of players, a Liverpool crest, or the name Anfield.. Hats are often a popular purchase of fans, especially those attending a Liverpool game. In fact, many fans are so dedicated to Liverpool FC that they search for a store to purchase merchandise.

Liverpool store merchandise is in high demand and fans are not necessarily picky. Stores may sell a wide variety of other items with some type of Liverpool connection. Thousands of people are very interested in m88 football and typically have a favorite team. An online store that sells Liverpool LC merchandise may have a large or small online store. All of their products are new and in stock

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Luis Suarez lifts Champions League in first season away from Liverpool | Football | M88 Sport

m88 Juventus, however, were arguably masters of their own downfall; consistent only in shooting high and wide and conceding possession too often.

M88 Lionel Messi, who joined Suarez in fishing his own son, Thiago, from the stands, seemed to be operating at just 80 per cent but glimpses of genius were still enough to play a key role in the first goal from Ivan Rakitic after four minutes and Suarez’s goal for 2-1.

When Neymar slotted home for 3-1 in time added on, the referee simply blew the final whistle; getting Barcelona’s celebrating m88 players back on to the pitch for a pointless Juventus kick-off was just too much trouble.

Three trophies have been secured with relative child’s play in his first m88 season. No wonder she was sobbing her heart out on the way out of the Olympic Stadium in Berlin after watching her dad score the second goal for Barcelona in a 3-1 demolition of Juventus.

For Suarez, it took just one season to vindicate ditching his short, turbulent love affair with Liverpool; he has now won La Liga, the Copa del Rey and the Champions League. “If you want to win the M88 Champions League then you have to suffer, it’s not the same if you don’t. What a turnaround from someone awash with controversy, banned for biting Giorgio Chiellini, Branislav Ivanovic and Otman Bakkal, and for racially abusing Patrice Evra.

“It’s incredible, it’s unique – it’s a dream,” he said. While the latter lost this match, despite the best efforts of Alvaro Morata who equalised for 1-1, his time will inevitably come.

Gianluigi Buffon had kept the Italian side in the match with two quite-brilliant one-handed saves. Luis Suarez

Luis Suarez poses with his children and the M88 Champions League trophy His daughter Delfina proudly wore her daddy’s Champions League medal around her neck during the post-match celebrations amid a cacophony of noise and a wall of howling praise. We paid a lot of money but he has shown he has tremendous hunger.”

Andres Iniesta, the captain on the night and man of the match, was the only surviving Barcelona player to have been on the field in the 2006 success over Arsenal and he marvelled at the decade of success the Catalan club has enjoyed since that triumph in Paris.

“It makes my hair stand on end when you look back and see how fortunate I have been to play m88 with FC Barcelona and achieve all these things,” he said.

“We thought it was impossible to repeat our treble of six years ago and we have managed it so we are going to enjoy fully with all our people, and then next year we will try to do it again.”

Suarez was draped in a Uruguayan flag for much of the celebrations, Gerard Pique with the net into which the striker and Neymar had scored their goals, after spending 15 minutes after the m88 game patiently cutting it free.

Luis Suarez

Luis Suarez celebrates scoring Barcelona’s second of the night Pique had been sold by Manchester United under Sir Alex Ferguson, Paul Pogba of Juventus released by the same m88 manager. And Suarez will hope all the trouble that has blighted his own career is now firmly in the past. Only pride.

Related articles . There was no embarrassment for daddy on Saturday night. We have shown humility and teamwork all season long.”

And he milked this latest glory for all it was worth, basking in the adulation for a good 40 minutes after the final whistle, jumping the advertising hoardings, crossing the blue running track and posing for selfies with the singing, flag-waving fans, leaning over the trench that further separates m88 fans from the action, to get a slice of their hero.

Two young children were shepherded down from the private boxes, first Delfina – an anagram of Anfield – then minutes later his son Benjamin, handed from fan to fan and passed over to Suarez.

Luis Suarez

Luis Suarez celebrates with Lionel Messi, Neymar and Javier Mascherano The picture of them crouching next to the M88 Champions League trophy, with a cluster of fans all jostling for position in the background – a photo taken on Suarez’s mobile phone by Barca defender Dani Alves – will no doubt have pride of place in his new Spanish home.

It was not just a reward for the brilliance of Suarez and his team-mates, but also of the club’s faith in his troubled genius.

“When we thought about Luis Suarez and considered him we knew of his great quality and his tremendous scoring figures, but of course we had doubts about whether he would adapt to a different team and a different way of m88 play,” said the coach, Luis Enrique.

“As it has turned out he has been one of the best m88 players we have ever signed and it was a very good decision to put our trust in him. Now we have the Champions League too. We suffered and won.

“We played hard in the m88 league, and in the cup hhht888.com

M88 Ibrahimovic remains committed to PSG amid growing transfer rumors

m88 It’s the moment. Paris Saint-Germain m88 captain Zlatan Ibrahimovic has ended speculation about his future at the Parc des Princes by declaring himself “happy” in the French capital.

Ibrahimovic, 33, only has one more year left on his current contract with the Ligue 1 m88 champions, and the forward recently refused to confirm he would still be at the club next season.

“Should I stay in Paris? My future is in the hands of (agent) Mino Raiola,” he told Sky Italia when asked about his PSG future last week.

However, despite those comments, Ibrahimovic has now reassured the m88 club’s fans that he will still be in “the best city in Europe” next season.

“I have a contract for another year, so I’m a PSG player, and I’m happy at the m88 club,” Ibrahimovic told ESPN FC. The ambition is to go further than that, but for me Champions League is all about the small details. “I did great things in these three years and what I did, nobody can take away from me and my team is a fantastic m88 team and I play with great players. I live in the best city in Europe, so I’m enjoying it.

“So all about future talks and that, I mean, there will always be talks, and I’m happy for the interest, but I’m a PSG player.”

However, despite PSG winning a domestic treble last season, the Sweden international described the Parisians’ campaign as just “okay”.

“I think last year, our m88 team, we did OK,” Ibrahimovic said. It’s not about going out there and thinking you can win it. We could do much more than what we did and hopefully this year we will do less mistakes than what we did and normally we should win, without doubts.”

He added: “Last year we were in the quarter-finals, and same thing [this spring]. I mean, you can do six months fantastic and then second six months, second half of the m88 season you’re not as good as the first and then the first six months is not worth nothing, so, it’s the moment.”

060815-SOCCER-ibrahimovic-celebrate-43b38c3ac16ce410VgnVCM100000d7c1a8c0____PARIS, FRANCE – MAY 30: Zlatan Ibrahimovic of PSG celebrates the victory after the French Cup Final between Paris Saint-Germain (PSG) and AJ Auxerre at Stade de France on May 30, 2015 in Saint-Denis nearby Paris, France. “We did what we could do and Lyon was following us in the race for the title until the end, so I think they did more than good and we did OK and still we won and that’s because we have such a strong m88 team

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12BET Manchester United FC – A Brief History.

12bet Despite Ferguson’s eventual success with United he did not have an illustrious start to his career as United manager. In 1998/99 United would complete an incredible achievement by winning the “treble”, the FA Cup, 12BET Premier League ( formerly the first division ) and the UEFA Champions League. United have a worldwide following and at home games at Old Trafford the full houses at the ground always include many visitors from around the world and from all parts of the UK.

The Ferguson Years

In 1986 Alex Ferguson would join United as a manager and begin a 27 year period of success that was virtually unprecedented in English 12bet football only rivaled by the great Liverpool side of the 1970s. In 2013 Alex Ferguson retired as United manager his place to be taken by Everton manager David Moyes, Ferguson’s reign had been the most successful in Uniteds history and had seen some of its finest ever players perform for the 12bet club including Wayne Rooney, Eric Cantona and Christian Ronaldo.

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Manchester United are the third richest 12bet football team in the world only behind the two Spanish giants Real Madrid and Barcelona in terms of income, they are also classed as the second most valuable sports team in the world behind Real Madrid. In his first season in charge Ferguson’s could only finish eleventh, things improved the following year but in the next season United were back to eleventh again, victory in a replay against Crystal Palace in the FA Cup final reportedly saved Ferguson,s 12bet job.

After victory over Crystal Palace in the cup everything started falling into place for Ferguson’s United, the club won its first European Cup Winners Cup title and then went on to beat Red Star Belgrade in the European Super Cup, in 1993 the 12bet club would finally achieve its first ” double ” by winning the FA Cup and the clubs first league title since 1967. United’s team now contained some of the best young players in the world game, names such as David Beckham, Paul Scholes and Ryan Giggs guaranteed that United would be a hard team to beat for some time to come.

United were to collect another eight league titles under the now knighted Sir Alex Ferguson’s reign as well as another FA Cup win, a win against fellow English team Chelsea in the UEFA Champions League and 3 12BET League Cup wins.

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FUN88 Luis Suarez goal seals Champions League trophy, ‘triplete’ for Barcelona

fun88 Suarez had a late start to the season because of a four-month ban for biting Italy and Juventus defender Giorgio Chiellini at the FUN88 World Cup.

“Both fun88 teams had their chances,” he said. At 1-1, Juventus was playing with coinfidence and aggression until the goal that took Barca to 2-1, a lead it never looked likely to surrender.

The celebration in front of their fans took a good four minutes, if not more.

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When he was substituted in injury time, Suarez walked slowly, shaking hands and hugging everyone along the way. Another minute or two off the clock. Suarez then jumped over the fun88 advertising boards behind the goal, another fence and ran toward Barcelona fans, followed by his teammates.

“You can’t ask for more. Barcelona completed a treble on Saturday by also sweeping the two domestic titles for the second time in the fun88 club’s history.

Suarez’s 68th minute goal gave Barcelona the lead after Juventus had come back to level Saturday’s final at Berlin’s Olympic stadium. “The truth is that I don’t have words to express the happiness or the grandeur of this fun88 team this season. All my words fall short,” Suarez said.

. The game went seven minutes into stoppage time and Neymar scored Barcelona’s final with seconds remaining for the 3-1 final score.

“We won’t see this (treble) happen again very often. He is still suspended for the Copa America this year. Chiellini was injured on Saturday, but another old enemy, Patrice Evra, was playing for the Italian team. These three titles, and finish it by winning the FUN88 Champions League,” Suarez said. “Another goal in the first half would have given us more control, but you can’t ask for anything more.

Suarez got the crucial goal, but also displayed a range of antics.

Juventus goalkeeper Gianluigi Buffon palmed away a shot by Lionel Messi but Suarez was there to tap the ball home. Suarez was banned for racially abusing Evra when the two played in England in 2011.

After missing several chances, the Uruguayan striker scored the goal that broke the back of Juventus in the FUN88 Champions League final, then drove Juventus fans to distraction, feigning injury as Barcelona fought to prevent another Juventus rally.

Barcelona took a risk on the controversial player by signing him away from Liverpool and Suarez has proven worth it by scoring 25 goals this season despite competing for fun88 goals with world beaters Lionel Messi and Neymar. This has been one of a kind.”

He feigned a serious injury, only to be back on the pitch immediately after limping off the field, wasting a couple of minutes as the clock ticked toward the end.

BERLIN (AP) –  Never one to avoid controversy, Luis Suarez came through for Barcelona just when it needed him most.

The decisive fun88 goal may help Suarez put behind his past biting incidents

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SBO Top 10 Most Hated Football Players

sbo Ramos is a notoriously hard-tackling defender with a nasty temper and a penchant for kicking and elbowing his opponents. He mocked ex-team-mate Dimitar Berbatov on the pitch and celebrated in front of Suarez (video).

3. The video shows how Alves perfectly timed the movement of his leg to look as if he was brutally fouled. There is nothing wrong with sbo winning penalties when you’re genuinely fouled, but even Alex Ferguson said he fell dramatically for one of the penalties he won for Manchester United in the 2011-12 season. Then there is his ban for racially abusing Patrice Evra. Joey Barton

Among sbo football fans there is no greater hatred than that reserved for Joey Barton. In the same year, he was charged for assault and affray outside a nightclub. There is little hope of stopping fan violence and racism with these players providing such a hateful example.

. In the video, you can see him actually in the process of cheating.

4. He has been booked at least four sbo times in his career for diving.

9. This has made him a widely hated player, resulting in tirades of laughter when he happens to balloon a penalty into the stands.

7. Thus, Alves has adapted by feigning injury and exaggerating tackles in order to get opposition sbo players sent off or booked. The two of them have made many football fans despise Barcelona, and that is unforgivable.

This list only includes currently active footballers. One of the most notable examples was against Real Madrid in a Champions League encounter. Beginning in 2001 he taunted American tourists in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks. John Terry

For John Terry, there really is no end to the scathing headlines, and most of it is well deserved. Dani Alves

The antics of Dani Alves may be motivated by something far worse than merely winning penalties. He makes trolling, caustic comments in the press about other sbo football teams, notably calling Arsenal an “academy team” and a “load of rubbish”. The Madrid player was sent off and Barcelona progressed to the next round. With several years to go before he retires, that number will surely rise. Three things may have acted to exaggerate his faults though. It also includes many players from the English Premier League and Spanish La Liga. Despite cheating on his wife with prostitutes, he is probably hated less than the 10 players on this list due to his perceived lack of intelligence and the fact that his wife forgave him. For example, sbo footballers who play for some of the biggest teams in the world are more likely to be hated by rival fans. The stats speak for themselves. However, the Football Association only needed to prove that abuse was likely to have occurred, giving John Terry a 4-match ban.

1. First, he played for Manchester United, which always earns you a bad rub of the green. In the 2013-14 season, he was also warned by David Moyes about his diving. Sergio Busquets

Much like his Barcelona sbo team-mate Dani Alves, Busquets takes simulation to a new level of ruinous disgust. In 2009 he allegedly gave tours of Chelsea’s training ground in return for bribes. When he joined Twitter he faced a torrent of abuse from the thousands of people who hate him and responded by trolling them in ways that only a nasty little brat could imagine. Second, he looks like a Ken Doll by wearing earrings and using hair gel, so there is a lot of scorn for this preening boy-band look from football fans. Luis Suarez

Where do we begin with this wretch? For most fans, Luis Suarez first came to hateful prominence when he hand-balled on the goal line to prevent a certain goal against Uruguay in the 2010 World Cup. If a number of sbo players from the team you support are included here, take it as a compliment that your team riles the opposition!

This list of the most hated football players was compiled from the opinions of numerous football fans on many internet forums. He is the biggest thug of them all and acts like a criminal on the pitch. His antics are worse than Alves for the simple reason that he dives far more often and for far more innocuous challenges. In 2008 he parked his expensive Bentley in a disabled parking space. He has received numerous red cards, has committed atrocious fouls, and continues to do so despite the attention his thuggery has received. Despite this, he achieved notorious levels of hatred during his time in the SBO Premier League, although his diving antics have cooled since coming to Spain.

5. He had an argument with one of the coaches and subsequently led a protest of all the players against the coaching staff that ultimately led to his nation’s elimination from the tournament. Whether through perpetual diving on the pitch or cheating on their wives off it, they need to be named and shamed to set an example for all upcoming sportsmen and women.

Occasionally, the hatred might be undeserved. Enjoy, be outraged, or feel disgusted, for here come the shameful!

10. Young won 11 penalties in 200 Premier League games before the end of 2012, and he’s continued `losing his balance’ since then. He left the team that developed him into a quality player to get more money from a richer sbo club. He was fined for swearing at a police officer, and he shot a work experience lad with an air rifle. While I don’t endorse hatred of Manchester United, their players don’t do the club any favours.

Who Are the Most Hated Footballers?

On and off the field, the sbo players on this list have demonstrated profound deficiencies in character and morality. In April 2013, Luis Suarez bit Branislav Ivanovich in a match against Chelsea. Since his move to the Premier League he has been accused of diving after winning a number of penalties for Liverpool. At the time of writing this entry, Ramos has 19 red cards, which is a La Liga record. The darker side of the beautiful game deserves as much attention as the goals, skills, and celebrations that make us smile. Where do we start? He allegedly cheated on his ex-wife Cheryl Cole numerous times until she divorced him. In 2002 he urinated in a beer glass which he then dropped to the floor of a nightclub. In 2012, he wiped his behind with a French football jersey. One of the clearest examples came at the end of the 2011-12 SBO Premier League season, as can be seen in the video.

Hatred of Manchester United?

While this list is heavy with Manchester United sbo players (past and present), a notable exclusion is Wayne Rooney. Other managers and pundits have been less careful with their words, blatantly calling him a cheater and diver. He was cleared of the abuse as it could not be completely proven. Being a full back, Alves doesn’t find himself in the opposition penalty area too often. He is still regarded a hero by many fans for being England’s best player. He was convicted of speeding in a residential area, and his lawyer attempted to argue the police speed gun was faulty. This list will no doubt get longer and longer.

6. Shockingly, this Uruguayan vampire then bit Giorgio Chiellini in a 2014 World Cup match against Italy.

2. As if this wasn’t enough, he went to trial for allegedly racially abusing Anton Ferdinand during a 2011 football match. Ashley Cole

There are so many reasons to despise Ashley Cole. With Ajax he bit an opponent (video). Third, he’s just a very good sbo football player who will draw fouls from the opposition. He is a nasty, vindictive prat who did more than his fair share in the Luis Suarez racism scandal by goading Suarez into the abuse. Perhaps he has an enduring inner ear infection? More likely he has a disgusting inclination to cheat whenever the opportunity arises. His formula of feigning injury until the referee reaches for a card has been repeated numerous times, and he damages the reputation of his great club, Barcelona.

8. Sergio Ramos

Sergio Ramos has had a long and distinguished career as Real Madrid’s most dirty player. Then in 2010 it was revealed that he cheated on his wife and two children by having an affair with a team-mates girlfriend. What makes Barton such a hated figure is the way he loses his temper and strikes out at other sbo players. With the largest audiences in the world, these leagues include the most hated players.

To help justify the entries on this list, I have endeavored to find videos showing their most despicable acts. Ronaldo

Other than his perpetual diving to win fouls and penalties and his tendency to be a petulant whinger, Ronaldo hasn’t done a huge amount wrong. Patrice Evra

There are many words to describe Patrice Evra and most are quite unpleasant, so let’s try to fit them all in! He is an angry, petulant, immature, whinging toad for his abuse of the captaincy of France’s SBO World Cup 2010 team. Ashley Young

Poor Ashley Young has a lot of trouble staying on his feet

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Preview, Prediction And Betting Odds [POLL]

Jamaica team

m88 the predicted result is a 2-0 win by Caribbean team over Center Americans. ET. “Our spirit is very good” he said.

Jamaica will face El Salvador today in 2015 CONCACAF Gold Cup at BMO Field, Toronto, Ontario at 6:00 p.m. Jamaica and El Salvador have met each other a total of 17 times in the past with Jamaica winning nice, losing four and drawing the other four. A win by the Jamaicans will land them at the first place in group B, which would be unfavorable as they will run into the defending champions Teams in the semifinals.

Jamaica goes into the game with four points from a win and a draw while El Salvador and Costa Rica have two points each other from two draws. The top two places in Group B are still up for grabs.  Jamaica is in a better position to get it. However, a win or draw against the Jamaicans would ensure Albert Roca’s squad of a place in the quarters. Canada is the weakness one with a lone point from a draw and a loss and will face Costa Rica later tonight; which make this group very interesting to watch what will happen after games over. Jamaica starting lineup 4-4-2 formation, while El Salvador lineup starting 4-2-3-1 formation will try to get victory. . Jamaica head coach Winfried Schafer said it was team spirit that produced the stoppage-time triumph. Caribbean team will look to wrap up the top stop in this group when they take on El Salvador tonight. The Reggae boyz took an important step toward the knockout round with that dramatic finish over Canada as Captain Rodolph Austin scored in the second minute of added time.

Jamaica celebrates after a goal by Garath McCleary (22) during the first half of CONCACAF Gold Cup group play against Costa Rica at Stub Hub Center.

Reuters/Kelvin Kuo-USA TODAY Sports

Live Stream: Fox Sports Go, UniMas, Fox Sports Live, Univision deportes in the US and Sportnet World in Canada.

On the other hand, El Salvador had been a surprise team in this year’s tournament as they were expected to lose all their three games in the classification round
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Omicron Targets Asian Online Gambling Market.

m88 they will have to register at the site, enter

their credit card number, and fill out a special verification screen.

Users will be able to use credit cards to buy “virtual chips”

and winnings will be credited to the card account.

Copyright 1999 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved..

COPYRIGHT 1999 Datamonitor

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

US internet gaming group Omicron Technologies Inc is to tap into

one of the world’s most avid gambling markets with a new web site

for Chinese and other Asian gamblers. Luckycasino.com, which is

scheduled for a July launch, will feature more than 20 games including

the perennial casino favorites roulette, baccarat, craps and blackjack.

Market forecasts are difficult to put together says Sak Narwal,

Omicron’s chief financial officer. “So much of the gaming in

Asia is underground. It is hard to get reliable statistics”.

However he estimated the online gambling industry in Asia could be worth

$10bn annually within five years.

The site will be available in seven Asian languages, and have

mirror sites in every market to help ease download speeds, Narwal said.

Gamblers will have to download special software or request a CD ROM to

use the online casino

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Gambler’s Fallacy: Definition and Examples

m88, what is actually observed is that, there is an unequal ratio of heads and tails. The conceit makes the player believe that he will be able to control a risky behavior while still engaging in it, i.e., the player will believe that at some point in his winning streak, he may have won enough to control himself, and eventually stop playing. This causes him to wrongly believe that since he came so close to succeeding, he would most definitely succeed if he tried again. However, this quality also leads us to assume patterns in independent and random chains or events, which are not actually connected. This fallacy is based on the law of averages, in the way that when a certain event occurs repeatedly, an imbalance of that event is produced, and this leads us to conclude logically that events of the opposite nature must soon occur in order to restore balance. Similarly, if he is failing at something, he will continue to do so. Probability fallacies are of three types – ‘near miss’ fallacy, ‘hot hand’ fallacy, and ‘gambler’s’ fallacy. Therefore, it should be understood and remembered that assumption of future outcomes are a fallacy only in case of unrelated independent events.

Monte Carlo Fallacy

The moniker was ascribed to this fallacy as a result of a game of roulette played at Casino de Monte-Carlo on August 18, 1913, when the ball fell on black 26 consecutive times. Eventually, both these concepts working in harmony within a gambler’s mind would lead to him losing all his money.

? Choosing of lottery tickets based on the numbers already played in the previous lottery. ? However, in cases with dependent events, such as the dealing of cards, this assumption is not a fallacy, since if one were to draw cards from a deck of cards, and the first 10 were red cards, the probability of the next card is instantly increased due to the fact that the original sample size has been reduced by the elimination of the alternative color of cards. Just because a number has won previously, it does not mean that it may not win yet again.

? Avoiding a slots machine at a casino that has recently rewarded its user with a jackpot, due to the misconception that the machine will not yield another jackpot anytime soon.. Gamblers lost millions of francs by betting against black, as they incorrectly reasoned that the uncommon and imbalanced streak of black had to inevitably be followed by a streak of red.

Humans are prone to perceive and assume relationships between events, thereby linking events together to form a succession of dependent events. Hence, in a large sample size, the coin shows a ratio of heads and tails in accordance to its actual probability. This implies that the probability of an outcome would be the same in a small and large sample, hence, any deviation from the probability will be promptly corrected within that sample size. However, it is mathematically and logically impossible for a small sample to show the same characteristics of probability as a large sample size, and therefore, causes the generation of a fallacy.

? If you throw two dice and get a certain number twice in a row, it would be wrong to assume that it could not be repeated again.

? If a sports player plays exceptionally well for a long period of time, the assumption that he would eventually make a mistake and play badly would be incorrect.

? Gambler’s fallacy can also occur in some instances where past events are related to future outcomes. Such a fallacy is mostly observed in a casino setting, where people gamble based on their perception of chance, luck, and probability, and hence, it is called gambler’s fallacy.

? It arises due to the belief that past independent events influence future outcomes, and originates from the erroneous belief that a small sample is an accurate representation of a larger sample/population. We develop the belief that a series of previous events have a bearing on, and dictate the outcome of future events, even though these events are actually unrelated.

It is a cognitive bias with respect to the probability and belief of the occurrence of an event. Here, the prediction of drawing a black card is logical and not a fallacy. Now, if one were to flip the same coin 4,000 or 40,000 times, the ratio of heads and tails would seem equal with minor deviations. If a plain and unbiased coin is taken and flipped, each time it is flipped, there is a 50% chance of it being either heads or tails. This presents a contrast to the gambler’s fallacy, the definition of which is described below.

Examples of Gambler’s Fallacy

? If a woman has had 4 children, all of whom were boys, it would be erroneous to assume that the 5th child will be a daughter.

? If a certain disease is said to affect 9 out of every 10 people, that does not imply that in a random group of 10 individuals from that area, the same ratio would be observed.

? This can be explained by the simple example of a coin toss. If one selects a small sample within this population, one may observe long continuous occurrences of heads or tails, but basing ones judgments on such subjective data leads to the formation of the fallacy/mistaken belief. Hot hand fallacy describes a situation where, if a person has been doing well or succeeding at something, he will continue succeeding. An example of this would be a tennis player. This is because, despite the short-term repetition of the outcome, it does not influence future outcomes, and the probability of the outcome is independent of all the previous instances. In other words, if the coin is flipped 5 times, and all 5 times it shows heads, then if one were to assume that the sixth toss would yield a tails, one would be guilty of a fallacy.

Understanding Gambler’s Fallacy

? It is a mistaken belief that if one experiences a continuous series of events, the opposite of such a series is soon to occur, i.e., if one is doing well, that luck is sure to run out soon, thereby bringing about a period of bad luck or failure. This plays in with gambler’s fallacy, as the loss will make the player play till he gets a win. However, this does not always work in the favor of the player, as every win will cause him to bet larger sums, till eventually a loss will occur, making him go broke. The near miss fallacy occurs when an individual experiences a failure in reaching a goal, in such a way that he/she believes that success was within reaching distance. This mistaken perception leads to the formulation of fallacies with regards to assimilation and processing of data. This quality is due to the fact that all human behavior is interlinked and connected invariably to our actions. The more number of coin flips one does, the closer the ratio reaches to equality. In other words, an ongoing streak of good/bad outcome will spawn a continuing streak in future ventures. This is because, repeated failure does not guarantee future success, and also, success in the match depends on a variety of other unrelated reasons, such as each player’s skill, injuries (if any), state of mind, etc.

? If a company’s share market value has decreased considerably, it would be fallacious to believe that the value would suddenly increase.

? You encounter a few empty roads on your commute to your workplace, and that leads you to incorrectly assume that the next road you turn on to will be choked with traffic.

The concept of gambler’s conceit often works hand-in-hand with the gambler’s fallacy while gambling. If he has to play 24 matches, out of which he has won 12 matches and lost 6, and is now left to play 6 more matches, and now, if one makes the assumption that the losing streak makes him due for a victory in his next match, one would be indulging in gambler’s fallacy. But this leads us to assume that if the coin were flipped or tossed 10 times, it would obey the law of averages, and produce an equal ratio of heads and tails, almost as if the coin were sentient

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Vietnam allows new casino; ban on Vietnamese may be lifted

m88 debate has focused on whether Vietnamese citizens should be allowed inside. The decree also mandates a minimum $4 billion investment in the casino’s development.

Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung’s approval in principle of the casino at Phu Quoc, a resort island in the Gulf of Thailand, was reported this week by local media.

“The money we may earn from the Vietnamese who spend at casinos in Vietnam instead of the ones in Singapore or Cambodia may not be enough to compensate for the economic and social consequences brought about if gambling is widespread and legalized in Vietnam,” she said, expressing skepticism that any rules limiting play by Vietnamese would be strictly enforced.

The Finance Ministry has proposed that the new decree allow Vietnamese who are over 21 years of age, financially secure and without any criminal record to play in selected casinos.

Economist Pham Chi Lan, however, expressed doubts about the potential benefits.

HANOI, Vietnam (AP) — A recently announced government decision to allow a casino on Vietnam’s biggest island drew mixed reactions Friday from citizens, who weighed its potential economic benefits against its perceived social vices.

Proponents of liberalizing the rules for casino operations say it would help keep money inside the country that Vietnamese gamblers now spend abroad, especially in neighboring Cambodia.

“Opening this casino will attract more tourists and infrastructure investment and create more jobs, which will bring more development opportunities,” she said.

Tran Thi Viet Huong of Viettravel, one of Vietnam’s major tour operators, said the planned casino on Phu Quoc in Kien Giang province would benefit the country if it is well managed.. Vietnam has several casinos, but they are reserved for foreigners. A draft decree on casino operations under review by government agencies would allow Vietnamese under certain conditions

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Negative Effects of Gambling

A study by the same university suggested that 73% of the individuals who are imprisoned are found to be problem gamblers.

? Gambling is practiced as a means of recreation. Thus, gambling practices cause a huge financial burden on the families of the affected and on the society at large.

? Children of parents who are problem gamblers or gambling addicts tend to feel abandoned and angry, further increasing stress and leading to strained family relations.

? According to the University of New York, in people with alcohol use disorders, the chances of developing an addiction to gambling are 23 times higher.

? Research has shown that gambling can lead to harmful behavior in people. A recreational activity is supposed to be refreshing and relaxing, but something like gambling is contrary to the very purpose of recreation. It can drag you into crime, gambling isn’t fun.

? Gamblers often exhibit mood swings and a strangely secretive behavior. The addiction has negative effects on one’s physical and mental health and it proves to be detrimental to one’s social, personal, and professional life. Their mental state can even lead to suicidal tendencies.

? They start borrowing money and take secret loans. The National Council of Problem Gambling (NCPG) describes this type of gambling behavior as problem gambling.

? Gambling has proven to be addictive. In the following sections of this Buzzle article, we discuss the negative effects of gambling on the individual and society.

? A majority of those addicted to gambling have substance abuse disorders.

? Additionally, rehabilitation and public assistance systems are taxed.

Gambling refers to the betting of money on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the intent of winning additional wealth. Over time, it becomes a habit, and eventually an obsession that can’t be overcome. Some take to substance abuse to supplement the high they get from winning huge sums while gambling. Addiction to gambling, coupled with substance abuse can make the gamblers physically abusive towards their family. Betting is a mentally taxing activity, and as one goes on risking more and more money, anxiety starts building.

? The stress from gambling may lead to health issues like ulcers, stomach problems, muscle pains, headaches, and problems with sleep.

? Problem gamblers and addicts tend to abuse their family members. To add to the so-called merry atmosphere, gamblers often smoke or drink while playing.

? Studies show that children with a sibling or parent addicted to gambling, are more likely to take to substance abuse.

You could be at gunpoint or holding the gun. The stress of risking huge amounts of money or the frustration after losing it can increase the tendency of abuse in gamblers. This proves to be detrimental to their social and family life. The addiction gets on to the gamblers to such an extent that they fail to think wisely before acting. They tend to stay away from their near ones, resulting in distrust between them and their loved ones.

? People continue gambling with the greed of winning money. The addiction robs a gambler of all the productive time and leads to loss of efficiency at work. The decision to gamble money is based on three parameters namely; how much to bet, the predictability of the event, and the conditions agreed upon, between the gamblers. In spite of the losses incurred, they continue betting. Six to eight million people in America are estimated to have a gambling problem.

? Similar to how an individual keeps consuming substances like drugs or alcohol to experience an altered mental state, he continues to gamble. ? Gambling at the cost of one’s job results in a decline in the quality of his professional life. Card games, coin tossing, and dice-based games are some non-casino based forms of gambling. On giving a serious consideration to the negative effects of gambling, we realize that it is best avoided.

? According to a research by NCPG, 76 percent of problem gamblers are likely to have a major depressive disorder.

? Over time, the practice of gambling starts becoming a habit and begins to have damaging effects at psychological, physical, and social levels. When they lose the money they had risked, they further gamble to recover the lost amount and it becomes a vicious circle even they can’t escape from.

? The addiction to gambling can leave one in bankruptcy. According to the National Research Council, 10 to 17% of the children of problem gamblers have been abused and so have 25 to 50% of the partners of problems gamblers.

? Gambling can lead to criminal activities. Forget satisfaction or peace, it is not even refreshing in the real sense. Sports betting and arbitrage betting are the other types. Thus, gambling can have a grave economic impact which is difficult to reverse.

? Apart from absence at work and drop in efficiency, a common observation is that gamblers tend to steal money and engage in fraudulent behavior to recover from financial losses incurred when gambling, or to get more money to bet.

? Substances of abuse are served at casinos and in pubs and clubs, thus increasing the likelihood of gamblers consuming them. The addiction leads people to continue with gambling irrespective of whether they earn or lose in the deal. The effect is similar to that of having a drug or a drink, which is why gambling changes one’s mental state and mood.

Games offered in casinos, table games like poker, Red Dog, and Blackjack, as also electronic games like Slot Machine and Video Poker are some of the common types of gambling. Due to lost mental peace, they may ill-treat their spouse and children. The two go hand in hand. It soon becomes a habit that can’t be broken.

Gambling = Thoughtless Expenditure + Waste of Time

Compulsive gambling leads to bankruptcy

? According to a study by the George State University, 50% of the problem gamblers commit crime. Their debt keeps building and it may reach an amount that exceeds their capacity to repay.

? Addiction to gambling has been linked with substance abuse. They engage in gambling activities at the cost of their time with family and friends. Some go that way to forget the sorrow of losing big sums when gambling.

? As gambling leads to increased criminal activities, in a way, gamblers add to the burden on prisons and the legal system.

Mental and physical health problems, financial issues, and conflicts in the family are among the common negative effects of gambling. Because of this, they land in worse situations and take the wrong decisions in life.

Initially, one looks at gambling as a way to run away from life’s problems, or from stress, anger, and loneliness. It only leads to a thoughtless expenditure of money and valuables.

? An Austrian study said that around 1 in 5 suicidal patients had a gambling problem.

? People who fall prey to gambling tend to remain away from their families and waste money on other bad practices. The greed never ends and they keep betting more and more. It causes a decline in his/her work performance, thus hampering his career.

? The costs of treating compulsive gamblers are huge. The skill of a gambler lies in weighing the three parameters and making a decision about what amount should be staked and how much should be expected in return.. Rehabilitating the gambling addicts needs money and time, and the process is not very easy

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

Dr. . Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

This makes little sense. 

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

Update note:Dr.   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

False Positive

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

Mr. Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

Gateway to the West

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. . Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr. It was so unusual at the time . Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Louis. 

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

The Road to Zero

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

Air Canada

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . 1952-1953).

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

***

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. . Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. .  

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

But, it doesn’t end there. 

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

Omega Man

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

Less Than Zero

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. . many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

From a front-line perspective

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

Ground Zero

AIDS now had a face.

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St

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How To Master Sports Betting

It’s all about accumulating winnings. If you are going to do it you need to do it properly and master it, it means you are completely organized and focused. You will be better off for doing so in the long run.

Look for value bets. You shouldn’t favor a team because they are the team your best friend supports. It could provide great insight as to predicting what will occur.

Sports betting is an easy way to make a tough living. Travel is a factor such as when East Coast sides travel to the West Coast and vice versa. Anything less than this and it is going to be a disaster. Thus when you are doing well, you will still be focused and when you aren’t doing so well you won’t be thinking that it’s the end of the world. So do yourself a favor and swear off them. The weather conditions also make a difference as they do in horse racing. You don’t want to lose money just because you weren’t on top of your game.

The most important thing is that you need to take emotion out of the equation. For instance, if you are pretty certain that a side is going to win and they are getting good odds for this than take this. So if you suffer a bad break along the way, just remember it goes with the territory. Also look into how sides perform the week after doing certain travel. Over time, you will learn what it should be that you should be paying attention to.

Speaking of the long run, this is what you should be focused on. Information and doing your homework is important, but you don’t want to full into the trap of information overload. You want to know who trained and who didn’t. What is the point of drowning yourself in statistics and research for what you could just as easily decided with a flip of the coin? So you need to sift through it all and just take the morsels here and there which are really important and make a difference. This means that when you place your bets you need to be thinking clearly and concisely. Upsets are always going to happen but see when it makes the most sense when to go for that and when not to. It is only going to place you in a difficult position and as much as you might think it won’t be, your decision making ability is going to be compromised. Hopefully this kind of thinking will keep you grounded. Business is business and you need to be concentrating on who is going to win regardless of who likes and who doesn’t like which team.. You can’t let the highs and lows affect you too much.

Because of this point, it is probably better if you steer clear from any matches involving the teams that you like. On the flip side, you shouldn’t bet against a team because someone you don’t like roots for that team. It doesn’t matter if it is pretty or not.

In the case of team sports, injuries are important

Caribbean Casinos – free article courtesy of ArticleCity.com

Vincent and St. First, each island has its own laws and rules when it comes to gambling, so be sure to find out the details about the island you visit. The Crowne Plaza Golf Resort & Royal Oasis Casino is a luxurious and exciting casino located within a plush hotel that has great choices of various games, slots, and other gambling opportunities. Although gambling is illegal for residents of The Bahamas, tourists can try their luck at any of the region’s spectacular casinos.

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. Second, the hours that some casinos are open may vary depending on the season, so find out ahead of time before making your plans. Casinos in Puerto Rico are some of the most exciting in the Caribbean region because of their extravagant historical décor, hot gaming, as well as their award-winning restaurants, live entertainment, array of bars and lounges, and much more.

The world-famous Atlantis Casino is the largest casino located in the Caribbean. The Atlantis also features several restaurants, outdoor terraces, and gaming lessons for the novice gambler. Croix in the Virgin Islands, and Antigua. The biggest difference between Caribbean stud poker and traditional poker is that instead of playing against other players, you go against the dealer. Since it began in Aruba, the popularity of Caribbean stud poker has grown tremendously in the region and is even played in Las Vegas.

While visiting the Caribbean travelers will find a number of glitzy casinos and hotels and resorts with on-site gambling. The combination of sugar-sand beaches and tropical island ambiance with all the glamor and excitement of Las Vegas makes for an ideal vacation destination for many travelers. Many of these glamorous gambling establishments are located in the historic city of San Juan, and most require that their patrons dress formally. The four largest casinos in The Bahamas are the Atlantis Casino on Paradise Island, the Crystal Palace Casino on New Providence Island, and The Crowne Plaza Golf Resort & Royal Oasis Casino and Our Lucaya, both on Grand Bahama Island.

Caribbean Islands Featuring Casinos

Other islands in the Caribbean that feature dazzling casinos and exciting gambling are the Dominican Republic, Aruba, Curacao, St.

Before heading to the slot machines, there are a few things casino patrons should remember. By Puerto Rican law, all casinos have to be located on the property of hotels or resorts. So not only can you wage bets during your sunny island vacation, but you will also find many other ways to let your hair down at Caribbean gambling palaces.

Caribbean Casinos

 by: Danielle Mitchell

The Caribbean region has a lot of hot gaming spots and casinos. Caribbean stud poker is a combination of blackjack and poker – the rules of play are similar between the two games. But unlike American and European casinos, the gambling atmosphere in the Caribbean is more relaxed, and most of the island casinos are not open 24 hours a day. And finally, no one under the age of 18 is allowed in Caribbean casinos, so schedule other activities for the youngsters before you hit the casinos.

Caribbean Stud Poker

Gambling in The Bahamas

The gorgeous island of Puerto Rico is home to about a dozen old-world-style casinos. Along with state-of-the-art slot machines, table games, and other types of gaming fun, Caribbean casinos also offer other nightlife options including dance clubs, discos, and bars.

Casinos in Puerto Rico

Compared to many other popular casino card games, Caribbean stud poker has a pretty short history.

This article was posted on February 13, 2006

Some popular casinos on the island include the Hyatt Regency Cerromar, Hilton Ponce and Casino, Westin Rio Mar Resort Casino, Ritz Carlton San Juan, which is the first Ritz Carlton casino, and many, many more. Maarten, St. During your stay in Puerto Rico, you can enjoy fine dining, exciting nightlife, and spectacular gambling fun all under one roof. Finally, the newest casino in the Bahamas is Our Lucaya Resort, which offers several gambling options.

Gamers are often drawn to The Bahamas which is popular for great casinos and gambling action. Located on the premises of the Wyndham Nassau Resort on Cable Beach, the Crystal Palace Casino has about 700 slot machines and 38 tables for games such as blackjack, craps, roulette, and baccarat. This poker variation started in Aruba in the 1980s, reportedly by some cruise ship directors who were out to make a buck. There are so many choices when it comes to gambling in the Caribbean that you’re sure to find the right island with the perfect casino to fit your style and your ideal vacation. The Atlantis’ expansive 30,000-square-foot area, which includes 78 table games and approximately 1,000 slot machines, has helped earned the Atlantis Casino its reputation as an immaculate gambling palace. All players are allowed to see one of the dealer’s cards, which is dealt face up.

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The Crystal Palace Casino is another sizzling casino found in The Bahamas

Negative Effects of Gambling

Addiction to gambling, coupled with substance abuse can make the gamblers physically abusive towards their family. The addiction leads people to continue with gambling irrespective of whether they earn or lose in the deal. A study by the same university suggested that 73% of the individuals who are imprisoned are found to be problem gamblers.

? They start borrowing money and take secret loans. Six to eight million people in America are estimated to have a gambling problem.

? Problem gamblers and addicts tend to abuse their family members. Sports betting and arbitrage betting are the other types. Thus, gambling practices cause a huge financial burden on the families of the affected and on the society at large.

? Children of parents who are problem gamblers or gambling addicts tend to feel abandoned and angry, further increasing stress and leading to strained family relations.

? Addiction to gambling has been linked with substance abuse. It soon becomes a habit that can’t be broken.

? Studies show that children with a sibling or parent addicted to gambling, are more likely to take to substance abuse.

Games offered in casinos, table games like poker, Red Dog, and Blackjack, as also electronic games like Slot Machine and Video Poker are some of the common types of gambling. To add to the so-called merry atmosphere, gamblers often smoke or drink while playing.

Gambling = Thoughtless Expenditure + Waste of Time

? Gambling is practiced as a means of recreation. They tend to stay away from their near ones, resulting in distrust between them and their loved ones.

? The costs of treating compulsive gamblers are huge. Card games, coin tossing, and dice-based games are some non-casino based forms of gambling. The skill of a gambler lies in weighing the three parameters and making a decision about what amount should be staked and how much should be expected in return.

? An Austrian study said that around 1 in 5 suicidal patients had a gambling problem.

? Gambling can lead to criminal activities. The two go hand in hand. A recreational activity is supposed to be refreshing and relaxing, but something like gambling is contrary to the very purpose of recreation. It can drag you into crime, gambling isn’t fun.

? According to the University of New York, in people with alcohol use disorders, the chances of developing an addiction to gambling are 23 times higher.

Gambling refers to the betting of money on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the intent of winning additional wealth. The decision to gamble money is based on three parameters namely; how much to bet, the predictability of the event, and the conditions agreed upon, between the gamblers. When they lose the money they had risked, they further gamble to recover the lost amount and it becomes a vicious circle even they can’t escape from.

? Similar to how an individual keeps consuming substances like drugs or alcohol to experience an altered mental state, he continues to gamble. This proves to be detrimental to their social and family life. On giving a serious consideration to the negative effects of gambling, we realize that it is best avoided.

? Apart from absence at work and drop in efficiency, a common observation is that gamblers tend to steal money and engage in fraudulent behavior to recover from financial losses incurred when gambling, or to get more money to bet.

? Over time, the practice of gambling starts becoming a habit and begins to have damaging effects at psychological, physical, and social levels. The addiction has negative effects on one’s physical and mental health and it proves to be detrimental to one’s social, personal, and professional life. Some take to substance abuse to supplement the high they get from winning huge sums while gambling. ? The stress from gambling may lead to health issues like ulcers, stomach problems, muscle pains, headaches, and problems with sleep.

? The addiction to gambling can leave one in bankruptcy. The stress of risking huge amounts of money or the frustration after losing it can increase the tendency of abuse in gamblers. Some go that way to forget the sorrow of losing big sums when gambling.

? People continue gambling with the greed of winning money. The addiction robs a gambler of all the productive time and leads to loss of efficiency at work. They engage in gambling activities at the cost of their time with family and friends. Forget satisfaction or peace, it is not even refreshing in the real sense. In spite of the losses incurred, they continue betting. The addiction gets on to the gamblers to such an extent that they fail to think wisely before acting. Due to lost mental peace, they may ill-treat their spouse and children. The greed never ends and they keep betting more and more. Because of this, they land in worse situations and take the wrong decisions in life.

Mental and physical health problems, financial issues, and conflicts in the family are among the common negative effects of gambling. It only leads to a thoughtless expenditure of money and valuables.

You could be at gunpoint or holding the gun. Their mental state can even lead to suicidal tendencies.

? Additionally, rehabilitation and public assistance systems are taxed.

? According to a study by the George State University, 50% of the problem gamblers commit crime. Rehabilitating the gambling addicts needs money and time, and the process is not very easy. It causes a decline in his/her work performance, thus hampering his career.. Thus, gambling can have a grave economic impact which is difficult to reverse.

? Research has shown that gambling can lead to harmful behavior in people. According to the National Research Council, 10 to 17% of the children of problem gamblers have been abused and so have 25 to 50% of the partners of problems gamblers.

? A majority of those addicted to gambling have substance abuse disorders.

? Substances of abuse are served at casinos and in pubs and clubs, thus increasing the likelihood of gamblers consuming them. Over time, it becomes a habit, and eventually an obsession that can’t be overcome. In the following sections of this Buzzle article, we discuss the negative effects of gambling on the individual and society.

? Gambling at the cost of one’s job results in a decline in the quality of his professional life. The effect is similar to that of having a drug or a drink, which is why gambling changes one’s mental state and mood.

? As gambling leads to increased criminal activities, in a way, gamblers add to the burden on prisons and the legal system.

Compulsive gambling leads to bankruptcy

? People who fall prey to gambling tend to remain away from their families and waste money on other bad practices. Betting is a mentally taxing activity, and as one goes on risking more and more money, anxiety starts building.

? Gamblers often exhibit mood swings and a strangely secretive behavior. The National Council of Problem Gambling (NCPG) describes this type of gambling behavior as problem gambling.

? According to a research by NCPG, 76 percent of problem gamblers are likely to have a major depressive disorder.

? Gambling has proven to be addictive. Their debt keeps building and it may reach an amount that exceeds their capacity to repay.

Initially, one looks at gambling as a way to run away from life’s problems, or from stress, anger, and loneliness

A Beginners Guide To Betting On Greyhound Racing

Many times, these prizes are outlined with the bet that is being made, allowing even beginners to determine the potential prize that is available with the bet that has been made.

The important odds to consider are the first, second and third for most bets that are being made. These odds are going to determine the likelihood of a certain dog coming in a certain place through the race.

Many online racebooks allow the bettor to take part in betting practices without actually being in the local area, as they can showcase the matches online with the use of the streaming video that can be presented to clients, allowing the clients to watch the races that are being bet on, with ease.

How can you determine what the prize will be once the bet has been made? The prize that will be given to the successful bettor depends on two factors; the amount that has been bet and the odds that are placed on the bet that has been made.. Using the odds and learning about the dogs and the specifics of the sport can be a great way to get into greyhound racing betting online.

Choosing between the many greyhound racing websites that are available is simple, when the reputation of the website is compared with the races and the bets that can be made.

Using these two factors, greyhound racing betting sites will determine the prize that is going to be awarded. It is important to realize that the odds given for the race are accurate and the odds makers have years of experience in determining the results of the race and therefore the odds should be considered accordingly.

As one of the most popular types of animal racing in the world, greyhound racing betting has many different types of bets that can be made with many different types of outcomes. Online betting sites with “racebooks” set the greyhound racing betting odds.

The odds are available through the race and are created by the sports books. There are often multiple dogs that are involved in the race and the bets are made on the position that the dogs are going to arrive over the finish line

Can Top Indian Casinos compare to Las Vegas Casinos? by David Cook

Indian Casinos all around the country are shattering the notion that Indian Casinos are a less than par alternative when compared to their Las Vegas counterparts.

2) Viejas Casino

However, just like in Sin City itself, the quality of Indian Casinos varies dramatically.

Viejas is a well-established and popular Indian casino. The Showcase Theatre features great shows and concerts. Beyond its top notch gaming, Viejas Entertainment puts on high caliber concerts and the Viejas Outlet shopping center is known for it’s upscale outlet shopping. This spectacular highly acclaimed ranch-themed resort and casino has earned various awards for its casino and games, as well as for its restaurants and golf club.

With literally hundreds of Indian Casinos spread out across the United States, to give you an idea of the level of quality gaming emerging on reservations countrywide, let’s focus in on a few of the top Indian Casinos leading the way. The casino also caters to the trend setting crowd with their new V Lounge bar.

Harrah’s Rincon Casino follows in the footsteps of the Harrah’s gaming brand. Amenities include a luxurious spa and a state-of-the-art fitness center.

1) Barona Valley Ranch Resort and Casino

Pala Casino offers award winning gaming, has eight restaurants, a 10,000 square foot day spa, a four-diamond resort with 507 deluxe hotel rooms, including 82 suites, four entertainment venues and an Olympic size pool with 12 cabanas. .

3) Harrah’s Rincon Casino

4) Pala Casino

Barona offers visitors Vegas style gaming action, combined with unique dining experiences, a luxurious hotel, and world-class golf. A-list performers scheduled regularly in the 1,200- seat Pechanga Theater

You might be surprised…

Here’s a quick snapshot of 6 Top Indian Casinos in San Diego:

A good place to start is from an area often considered the Indian Casino capital of California and the location of an extremely competitive Indian Casino market, San Diego, California.

You definitely won’t be let down by any of the Top 6 San Diego Indian Casinos.

In addition to great gaming, dining and entertainment, Sycuan Resort offers 54 holes of Southern California’s best golf, championship tennis courts, great overnight accommodations and a relaxing atmosphere to enjoy cocktails and fine dining. Pala routinely attracts big name entertainment concerts as well.

5) Pechanga Resort and Casino

As one of the country’s newest resort destinations, Pechanga Resort & Casino, an AAA four-diamond property, offers the best of hotel luxury, Vegas style gaming, entertainment, meeting facilities and seven fine dining choices.

6) Sycuan Resort and Casino

If you are getting the itch to visit Vegas but don’t want to make the trek, you might not have to look much further than your local Indian Casino. Harrah’s Rincon routinely attracts famous acts to it’s entertainment complex. A new 21-story hotel tower adds to the resort feel and recently was voted as having the Best Rooms, Best Suites, Best Hotel Service and more in 2005 by Casino Player magazine

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

Update note:Dr. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

Gateway to the West

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. . .  

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. .

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

Less Than Zero

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

Air Canada

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

Ground Zero

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Louis. 

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

***

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa.   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

Omega Man

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

From a front-line perspective

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

The Road to Zero

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

AIDS now had a face.

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

False Positive

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet . many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

Mr. 1952-1953).

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. It was so unusual at the time . . Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

This makes little sense. 

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

But, it doesn’t end there. 

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

Dr

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